How we fail women abroad

How we fail women abroad

Women are raped, mutilated, or sold as sex slaves, meanwhile we look the other way. Here Alexander Alley discusses the statistics and stories that shed light on the culture of Rape and misogyny in the wider world. Special focus will also be given to Egypt where despite the so called Arab Spring, Women are still subjected to the horrors of mutilation, oppression and rape.

Young girls are being sold to militants in Libya, FGM is still prevalent in Africa, the Middle East and South East Asia, whilst the West has made great strides in progress for women’s equality we tend to ignore oppression elsewhere. We bracket ourselves into small localised movements and wonder why women elsewhere aren’t being treated fairly. A “slut walk” in Toronto gained traction in Europe and America, meanwhile, women who celebrate Women’s day in Turkey are shot with rubber bullets and tear gas. While Feminists lock horns with Conservatives and Liberals on University campuses across the West we blanche over Women being beaten or stoned for being raped (extra marital sex) or young Yemeni girls married as child brides. We detest rape in the West yet we dislocate ourselves from women in Africa who face rape as tool of war.

We are all guilty of blinding ourselves, although there is a sickening irony that exists in our rhetoric. In the same year the famous Feminist revival reported by Joan Smith in 2013’s Slut walk demonstrations saying that “Feminism is one of the great human rights movements” wesimultaneously failed to noticein the same year, young Libyan girls were being sold as tribute to militia fighters loyal to ISIS, where is their human rights? This is still ongoing at a rate of fifteen girls every three weeks, an example of this tragedy tells us of a twelve-year-old girl that was raped multiple times by various fighters.

Carlos Lowry / Creative Commons License
Carlos Lowry / Creative Commons License

Female Genital Mutilation is still carried out in small but significant blocs of the population in the Middle East, Africa and South East Asia.There are several forms of FGM, however, all are invasive and damaging; from cutting the labia, removing the Labia, clitoris, or to sew shut the vagina by stitching the labia together. This is conducted at alarming rates, in Iraqi Kurdistan 72%ofwomen are suspected to be victims of FGM; Nigeria holds one quarter of all women subjected to mutilation.

Moreover, women and girls make up 80% of the victims of human trafficking, with a further 80% involved in sexual exploitation. Human trafficking is so rife, that it’s the third most lucrative illegal trade in the world, something that can only be called modern slavery.

For the time being we’ll focus on Egypt, as its perhaps the closest to home and has been widely documented as having a culture of rape and oppression that eclipses the Arab spring as one of the largest travesties of the 21st century. For us in the West who saw it through gilded lenses we saw it as a victory for Liberty and Democracy, however, for women in Egypt they saw it as a missed opportunity to tackle issues that they face; only to beremindedof their second class status juxtaposed to men in their own country.

Gender equality has been a battleground in Egypt since the 1920’s, with a movement epitomised by Huda Shaarawi and Saiza Nabarawi famously tearing off their veils in Cairo Station to aghast men and cheering women, the same movement in Egypt saw women acquire the right to vote and run for office in 1956. However, despite their achievements, Egypt is still a country that sees women assaulted at alarming rates, Mona Eltahawy writes at length about the injustices that Egyptian women face on a daily basis.“In a 2008 survey by the Egyptian centre for women’s rights, more than 80% of Egyptian women said they’d experienced sexual harassment, and more than 60 percent of men admitted to harassing women.” According to a UN survey,99% of women experienced a form of harassment, in Cairo, women only carriages on subways are used to protect women and FGM is rife;“90%” of women who have ever married, are subjected to a form of mutilation.

Westerners also have been known to experience the trouble Egyptian women face, aninfamous case concerns the assault of Lara Logan. Asa reporter for CBS, during her coverage of the Tahir square protests she was pulled away from her team, beaten, stripped and sexually assaulted by dozens of men for around 25 minutes. This continued until a group of women rescued her and protected her from the crowd,”The only thing to fight for, left to fight for, was my life,” she said. “I have to just surrender to the sexual assault. What more can they do now? They’re inside you everywhere.”

DFID - UK Department for International Development / Creative Commons License
DFID – UK Department for International Development / Creative Commons License

What’s more shocking is our behaviour concerning such acts, coverage of the Tahir square was spun to show an enlightened and warm protest, (see the Coptic Christians protecting Muslims during prayers.) however, what the coverage didn’t examine was the 169 mob rapes that happened during the protests.

It was  Marshall McLuhan who coined the“Global village”, a figurative village where we all share

the same fate and should strive for the betterment of not only us, but our neighbours. Yet in reality we ignore our neighbours; even though they face rape, mutilation and oppression.Likewise, we fail women in Egypt, by refusing to tackle these issues lest we are condemned of being insensitive and imperialistic, despite our supposed championing of basic human rights. We preach about our values and principles incessantly, yet bow down to cultural relativism when the realities of our world knocks on our door. We condemn Donald Trump for his ideas of building a wall, yet we erect one every day when we turn a blind eye to the atrocities that an entire gender is subjected to next door?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


The views expressed in this article are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of Development in Action.

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Feminist Economics: What they don’t teach you in an Economics Degree

Feminist Economics: What they don’t teach you in an Economics Degree

Sam Wigglesworth highlights a feminist economics critique of mainstream economics. In particular Sam shows how women in the global economy are disadvantaged under the approach to economic thinking.

 Money makes the world go around. Or perhaps the phrase should be that the global economic system makes the world go around. We have infused it with an enormous level of value and left it free to paint the world red. With it, however, we’ve let a few problematic tendencies go; (probably because it helps to make money for a lot of powerful people) like the reality that for the system to work, certain, more informal types of work have to happen quietly, in the back, with little acknowledgement going towards the people doing it.

This is because, for the economic system to ‘work’, we need some people to quietly raise the next generation on their own and look after the growing aging population, with preferably little to zero state support. Ideally, they need to also work while doing this, otherwise they are statistically unproductive to the global economy.

It could be men doing this type of work, but the other reality we are dealing in is that they aren’t. Time after time, study after study, from Europe, to the United States, to India, to Asia, women at on the global level are doing more of unpaid work than their male counterparts.

Laura Forest / Creative Commons License
Laura Forest / Creative Commons License

This means that the economy, for all it’s bells and whistles, is at it’s core, a “value system in which all good and activities are related only to their monetary value”. In other words, the way the economic policies are organised places no value on the work that primarily women do, and yet the entire economic system relies upon their ability to do this work and not be recognised for it.

In the UK, this is a debate that is gaining attention and traction, particularly in the wake of austerity justifications. The Fawcett Society, a group working to advance women’s rights, took the Lib Dem/Tory Government to court over their 2010 ‘emergency budget’ to find out whether there had been due consideration about the ways in which different measures impact differently on men and women.  It was a unique interpretation of  the Gender Equality Duty, now replaced by the 2010 Equality Act, which places an obligation on public authorities to ‘assess the impact of their current and proposed policies and practices on gender equality’ and produce what is commonly known as a ‘Gender Equality Impact Assessment’ (GEIA).

As it turned out, the Government hadn’t but little has seemingly changed. The Huffington Post  highlighted that that under the Lib-Dem/Conservative government from 2010-2015, “more than 80% of the revenue raised by the Treasury from tax and benefit changes came from women’s pockets.”  Cuts to local governments budgets have seen domestic services close down, and women are experiencing higher levels of violence, no doubt a result of the austerity policies implemented in the wake of the financial crisis. Some cry that women are in more jobs! Well yes, but there isn’t much talk about what these jobs are, as the Fawcett Society stated: “Jobs growth is welcome but our economy is disproportionately dependent on low paid part-time work and insecure employment [and]  75% of part-time workers are women.” It goes without saying that these impacts become worse for black and minority ethnic (BME) women.

Gender Summit / Creative Commons License
Gender Summit / Creative Commons License

However, it isn’t just the UK. International institutions are culprits too, accused of simply “ignoring women, their activities, their work and their various contributions to the societies in which they live.”  The IMF and World Bank has a long history of promoting economic policies that impact women’s economic lives in a negative way, from the structural adjustment policies of the 1970s to conservative fiscal policies in the aftermath of the 2007 global financial crisis.

Solutions however are being discussed. Most cited is Diane Elson’s “triple “R” approach” which involves recognition of the unpaid work women do in the global economy; reduction of unpaid work and the redistribution of this work within the family.

However, despite the existence of practical ideas to solve these issues, it’s hard not to realise that the implementation of these solutions are sketchy at best. Arguably because women don’t feature in any of these institutions. There is a lack of understanding about the reality of women’s experiences in the global economy which has meant that policies, both at state and international levels have repeatedly failed to create, enhance and protect initiatives that support women’s economic development. To change this, we need more than a few token women thrown in for the perception of equality and we need to address the assumption that the economic system is gender neutral and effective, because when it only factors in the work of half the global population, we can barely maintain with the straightest of faces that it’s working at all, and it’s long time we stopped.


The views expressed in this article are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of Development in Action.

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Women in Indian society: reflections from a current India intern

This is the first of a series of blogs done by Holly Peacock, one of Development in Actions India Interns. Holly will discuss her experiences, thoughts, and personal development whilst in India. This blog looks at the treatment of women in Indian society, an issue which has made international news in recent months.

“You’ll never know India, but you’ll fall in love with her.” How right he was, Tony of Kuku Café, Jaisalmer. A jolly twenty-something with a big grin, and a no-doubt well-utilised line – we girls were “Tony’s Angels” (the fact that there were four of us readily overlooked). I know I’ll never fully understand India but I want to try. I want to at least attempt to know this land and her one billion souls. The love part is a given.

In the short 8 weeks I have been here, I have fallen into some sort of imitation of Indian life – I drink chai and attempt DIY chapatti. I ride in the boot of autorickshaws and expertly sidestep oncoming mopeds as I cross the road, only partly conscious of the blast of (seriously unnecessary) horns. Naturally, this white girl is fooling no one. “Which country, which country?” they want to know. “New Zealand and no, I know nothing about our cricket team.” I’m here to translate my academic learning into to real world experience. That’s what I put on my DIA application form. But really I’m here to learn and reflect. This is what I’m hoping this blogging business is going to portray. Enjoy.

I knew from the outset that India’s (imbalanced) gender relations were going to be the thing I struggled most to get my head around. But I underestimated the frequency by which the patriarchy would jolt me out of my routine papaya-buying, rickshaw-declining, Fatehpura living.

OnchitaS/ Creative Commons License
OnchitaS/ Creative Commons License

I notice it when the guy charged with feeding us at one of the Block Offices takes my bemused “I have no idea what you’re saying, but sure” responses to his incessant chat in Hindi as an invitation to crank out the porn he has stored on his Samsung 1200T. I notice it when a temple sign dictates that no woman on her period should enter ‘as to preserve the sanctity of the temple’. I notice it when I hear directly from village women that a child should speak for a woman at the Caste Panchayat meeting as she is disallowed from speaking for herself. I notice it when I read that Udaipur district’s sex ratio declined by 24 points between 2001 and 2011.

India has 37 million missing women. The reasons for this are varied and complicated, though the neglect of girl-children, female infanticide, sex-selective abortions and female mortality are all partly responsible. Centuries of tradition and religion place women both on pedestals and at the feet of men – their ‘honour’ a virtue so easily toppled. To me it seems that on a societal level women here are yet to be recognised as whole, complicated and multi-sectional human beings; arguably something the rest of the world too struggles to comprehend. I want to explore this inequality further in subsequent blogs, but for now I am interested in the effect this patriarchy has on impressionable young Indian men. Sunny Hundal in his book ‘India Dishonoured’ suggests that by 2020 there will be an extra 28 million men of marriageable age. THIS IS KIND OF TERRIFYING. What will this do to a society which at best undervalues women, at worst downright abuses their human rights? What too, will it do to these young guys, unable to find a bride in a culture which places so much emphasis on marriage?

Steve Evans / Creative Commons License
Steve Evans / Creative Commons License

 

According to sociologists, young unattached males are more likely than others to congregate in groups and as a result, become more willing to engage in unusual risky behaviour (a phenomenon known as ‘group polarisation’). This is bad news. How will all these extra (young) men come to view unmarried women? As a commodity? An object to be traded; property they’re entitled to? What of the women who resist their advances? In the Times of India today, it was reported that children in India are more exposed to risk factors that make them sexually violent later in life compared to countries including Rwanda, Mexico, Croatia and Chile. The survey, carried out by the International Centre for Research on Women “and two other organisations” (quality journalism as always from the Times), found that 24.5% of the 2000 Indian men surveyed had engaged in sexual violence at some point, most of it directed towards an intimate partner. The percentages for Chile (9.4%), Rwanda (9.1%), Croatia (8.8%) and Mexico (4.3%) are positively aspirational in comparison.

While the developed world begins to recognise the importance of conversations surrounding consent even among primary school children, sex education is not a part of the school curriculum in most parts of India. The combination of misinformation, inexperience and early marriage is a dangerous one. A UNICEF survey found that only 36 per cent of young Indian males and 20 per cent of young Indian females were aware of HIV. Reports of rape continue to rise, official government statistics show incidences of rape increased from 24,923 in 2012 to 33,707 in 2013 (likely underestimates given the stigma of reporting rape). This could be representative of victims’ increased willingness to report rape; unfortunately there hasn’t been a corresponding increase in conviction rates (hovering around 28 per cent). Nor has the language appeared to change, today’s page three article reporting on the rape of a woman by a man she had befriended on Facebook begins “Friendship on Facebook with an unknown man cost a woman her modesty.” This implicit victim blaming isn’t uncommon and it’s not hard to imagine increases of these sorts of violent crime in the face of frustrated, peer-influenced groups of guys.

For India to tackle the imminent social ramifications of a society with so many more men than women, first it must start to recognise women as whole, complicated human beings freed from constraints of honour and modesty. It must too recognise the negative effects this imbalance will have on men in a culture so preoccupied with marriage.

 

 


The views expressed in this article are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of Development in Action.

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Forget sweatshops; what can factories do for women?

Forget sweatshops; what can factories do for women?

Paula Williamson evaluates the opportunities that factories in Bangladesh provide for women. She argues that factories are providing women opportunities. However, there are still restrictions which inhibit access.

The Asian factory is frequently equated with worker exploitation, particularly the exploitation of vulnerable groups such as women and children. A notable example of this has been the coverage of the 2013 Rana Plaza disaster where a Bangladeshi garment factory producing goods for high street brands in the west collapsed and killed over a thousand workers. Coverage led to wider discussions of unsafe worker conditions, worker rights, and consumer culpability.

The high level of negative association of factories with “sweat shops” as well as academic and practitioner interest in informal economies have encouraged interest into projects exploring home based income generation and entrepreneurship and what it can do for women.

However, when looking at employment from a development perspective, there is also a compelling case that links the factory floor, rather than home based work, to positive social outcomes. Researchers like Naila Kabeer from LSE’s Gender Institute, argue that formal employment outside the home has better development outcomes than home based employment for women in Bangladesh, and other developing countries as well.

In fact, looking at Bangladesh, the growth of the export orientated economy and labour intensive garment sector in the 1980s have been two of the most significant forces in empowering Bangaldeshi women. Not only has employment translated into more financial independence and decision making power for women, the allure of a wage has challenged some of the restrictions that exist on women’s mobility and participation in the public domain. In fact, the Bangaldeshi Government’s Sixth Five Year Plan (2011-2015) focuses on economic access as the priority means to achieve women’s advancement and rights. Other organisations like UNIFEM and UNSECO follow a similar line of thought in their work.

 

Jankie / Creative Commons License
Jankie / Creative Commons License

 

As well as being particularly good at creating large scale job opportunities, there are a number of reasons why labour intensive industries that favour formal, group organised labour, such as factory floors, can be a powerful force in women’s empowerment.

Vulnerable women also tend to do better when they work as part of a group. A good example of this is the microfinance movement that was born with Dr Yunus’ Grameen Bank in 1983. Grameen Bank stipulates that women borrow as part of a group and have access to formal, and informal, support services through these groups. Evidence does suggest that development outcomes in Bangladesh are higher for women when borrowers join a support group or borrower’s network. A review of breast feeding programmes in low and middle income countries also suggests that peer support increases effect.

The workplace is a valuable platform for skill sharing, friendship building, and mutual support. Opportunities to build social ties outside of the natal and marital homes can be particularly precious in countries where women’s mobility is restricted, such as countries that practice the Purdah system of female seclusion. Working from home can isolate women and this has implications for on the job learning, autonomy outside the home, as well as social identity. Alternatively, working outside the home can give women a public identity that was previously illusive, as well as corresponding social status.

Of course, access to a social networks or social solidarity does not always translate into poverty reduction or empowerment. For example, indigenous groups in many Latin American countries are noted for their social solidarity but struggle to gain access to power and resources needed to assert themselves in the political, economic or social landscape. However, coming together as a group can make the vulnerable more visible to the civil society organisations which both campaign for and educate workers on their rights, as well as the regulators who police health and safety conditions.

Restrictions, of course, still exist within the factory for women. In Bangladesh’s garment industry there is a stark disproportion between the sex ratio of production line workers, 4 women to every 5 men, and supervisors, 1 woman to every 20 men. Moreover, having an inclusive human resource management policy does not negotiate the myriad of obstructions women face in getting into the workplace: mobility, domestic burdens, familial pressure to name but a few.

Here is where there lies real opportunity for the development sector to make in-roads into accessibility of employment for women. Skills investment into female workers, fighting bias against women supervisors, child care provision, safe transport to and from work are some suggestions.

 

Paula Williamson is currently reading a Masters at the LSE in Gender, Development and Globalisation.


The views expressed in this article are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of Development in Action.

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Shutting down the EVAW debate: a setback for women’s rights in Afghanistan?

MPs in Afghanistan shut down a recent debate on violence against women. DiA blogger Courtenay Howe reports on the Law to Eliminate Violence Against Women and the implications of its implementation

EVAW was enacted through a decree by President Karzai in 2009
EVAW was enacted through a decree by President Karzai in 2009

On 18 May, a debate held in the Afghanistan parliament on the Law to Eliminate Violence Against Women (EVAW) ended after just 15 minutes following calls from traditionalists for the law to be scrapped.

EVAW was enacted through a decree by President Karzai in 2009 – but it failed to gain MPs’ approval. It outlines 22 forms of violence against women and mandates punishment for those who commit acts such rape, forced prostitution, forced marriage and denial of the right to education. Keep reading →


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In the Shadow of a Man – film review

Last month, DocHouse Documentary Festival screened In the Shadow of a Man, a film about four Egyptian women and their lives both before and after the revolution.  Here, DiA blogger Saara Jaffrey-Roberts reviews the film

Post-revolution, has the situation changed for the women of Egypt? Photo by  Gigi Ibrahim/ Creative Commons
Post-revolution, has the situation changed for the women of Egypt? Photo by Gigi Ibrahim/ Creative Commons

“As the old saying goes… better the shadow of a man than that of a wall…”

In the Shadow of a Man, directed by Hanan Abdalla, turns its lens towards Wafaa, Suzanne, Shahinda and Badreya: four Egyptian women from distinct socio-economic backgrounds who span different generations. The film presents a series of intimate conversations with these women, and we learn that, despite their differences, they are all connected in trying to determine their own destinies and break from traditional codes of Egyptian society.

Keep reading →


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Human Rights Watch Film Festival: Tall as the Baobab Tree

In the fourth of our series of reviews from the Human Rights Watch Film Festival, Holly Young reflects on the issue of child brides through a film documenting the practice in a village in Senegal.

 

TallastheBaobab_Coumba_thinking
© Jeremy Teicher

On the face of it, Tall as the Baobab Tree is a film about child marriage. Through the moving relationship of two Senegalese sisters – Debo, the 11 year old consigned to an arranged marriage by her father following the injury of her older brother, and Coumba, her older sister committed to trying to rescue her – the film sensitively illustrates the economic, cultural and emotional context to child marriage. Keep reading →


The views expressed in this article are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of Development in Action.

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Human Rights Watch Film Festival: Salma

In the second of the DiA Blog’s series of reviews from the Human Rights Watch Film Festival 2013, Louisa Jones reflects on Salma, the story of a Muslim Tamil woman in India who is marginalised for striving for success.

 

Salma becomes a role model for women in her community. Photo: mckaysavage/ Creative Commons
Salma becomes a role model for women in her community. Photo: mckaysavage/ Creative Commons

From a young age, we are taught to make sense of our world through facts, figures and trends. British schoolchildren will forever remember the haunting mantra, “point, quote, explanation”, encouraging fastidious analysis of fact over feeling. It was therefore with an initial sense of unease that I watched the UK premiere of Kim Longinotto’s Salma at the Human Rights Watch Film Festival in London last Thursday. This unassuming documentary tells the bittersweet story of thirty-something-year-old Salma, a fearless Tamil Muslim who has escaped her community’s harsh customs of female seclusion, yet despite her success as a poet and politician, continues to face daily prejudice from her closest relatives.

Keep reading →


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Human Rights Watch Film Festival: The Patience Stone

In the first of a series of reviews from the Human Rights Watch Film Festival 2013, blog editor Emily Wight finds a moving account of one woman’s story in Afghanistan.

About a month ago Shinkai Karokhil, a member of parliament in Afghanistan, claimed: “The woman of Afghanistan today is absolutely different from the woman of Afghanistan from yesterday.”

Women in Afghanistan have faced turbulent times for decades. Photo: isafmedia
Women in Afghanistan have faced turbulent times for decades. Photo: isafmedia

It is this conviction, that women in Afghanistan are on the cusp of a new dawn, which influences Atiq Rahimi’s film The Patience Stone, based on his novel of the same name. Our protagonist is an unnamed woman – the significance of which is ambivalent: it indicates a lack of identity but also, conversely, a blank canvas on which she can start her life afresh – in an unnamed country where the sound of gunfire and the sight of tanks on residential streets are routine.

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Reflecting on attitudes towards women in India

Two weeks after a medical student was gang-raped and killed in Delhi, Daniel Hinchliffe, who is volunteering with Seva Mandir in Udaipur, reflected on what he’s seen of attitudes towards women in India. Since he wrote this post, six men have been arrested for a second gang-rape in the Punjab region. Daniel shares his thoughts below.

Why is there such a struggle for equality for women in India? Photo by Daniel Hinchliffe
Why is there such a struggle for equality for women in India? Photo by Daniel Hinchliffe. See more at www.indiadan.co.uk

Since arriving in India, I’ve wanted to write a blog post on gender issues in the country. But I’ve always found myself confronted with a vast topic, which I feel barely competent to address. Most of what I have to go on is based on what I’ve seen or heard from those much more knowledgeable and experienced than myself, but I hope I can do the topic the justice it deserves.

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After “Damini”: the Delhi gang rape and women’s empowerment in India

The recent gang-rape and subsequent death of a 23 year old woman in Delhi has sparked condemnation all over the world. Former DiA 2-month India volunteer Louisa Jones considers the tensions between India’s rapid economic development and its attitudes towards women.

One of the many protests that have started up around India. Photo by ramesh_lalwani/ Creative Commons
One of the many protests that have started up around India. Photo by ramesh_lalwani/ Creative Commons

India’s meteoric rise on the world economic stage in the last few decades has brought considerable benefits to a small, well-educated proportion of society. The boom of IT and related industries has given birth to smart metropolises bristling with foreign investment and an insatiable appetite for commercialism. The egalitarian gender roles of this pseudo-Western world have thrown upwardly mobile women a life raft, helping to break down the stigma that would have once clung to them had they dared aspire to a life outside the home.

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The garment industry in Bangladesh – from a woman’s perspective

Women in a garment factory

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Most of us are aware when we shop in Primark or H&M that the cheap clothes are made thanks to workers in developing countries on extremely low wages. But what repercussions has the burgeoning garment industry in Bangladesh had on people’s lives? Marie Pettersson, who is coming to the end of a three-month research project in Dhaka, writes about the role of a woman in such a profession, drawing from her own experiences visiting garment factories.

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Renaming themselves, reclaiming identities: Indian girls no longer “Unwanted”

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 No longer “Unwanted”: Indian girls are changing their names

Last week the Indian state of Maharashtra hosted a ceremony to re-name girls whose names meant “Unwanted”. Aman Johal considers some of the problems Indian girls face and what this step means for a society in which gender plays such a significant role. Aman has just returned from a summer volunteering in Moldova.

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The Girl Effect

DiA blogger Lynsey Logan discusses the visions and efforts of The Girl Effect – an empowerment campaign which recognises the important role six hundred million adolescent girls in the developing world could play in ending global poverty.

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Empowering Women

DiA writer Emily Wight reflects on the impact women empowerment initiatives – focused on increasing participation in the workplace – can have on developing not only the economic structure, but also the social dynamics of communities across South Asia. Emily has firsthand experience of working on women empowerment projects, as a five month DiA volunteer based in Pondicherry.

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Women in Egypt: ‘Why Not?’

In the second part of DiA’s exclusive coverage of International Women’s Day, Cardiff University Journalism students Sara Maranon and Sandhya Kannan investigate how the revolution in Egypt is transforming the role of women within society. They spoke with Aya Faissal Abdel Dayem and Islam Sharaf, both of whom work for the Association for the Development and Enhancement of Women, an NGO based in Cairo.

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International Women’s Day 2011

DiA’s Development Education Officer, Jessie Kirk, reports on the thousands of events that are taking place across the world on March 8th, as part of the 100th International Women’s Day. From Kentucky to Kathmandu, the universality of this occasion serves to demonstrate the day’s global importance.

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